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Cancer Day 2022

Cancer Day 2022

 

What is cancer?

Cancer is disease in which abnormal cells in the body start to grow in a body part and spread to affect other parts of the body.

What are the most common cancers in Nigeria?

The five most common cancers in Nigeria are cancers of the breast, cervix, prostate, colorectal, liver cancer. Unfortunately Nigeria has the highest cancer death rate in Africa

What causes cancer?

Different things cause different cancer: cigarette smoking (lung cancer), hepatitis B & C {liver cancer), human papilloma virus (cervical cancer), breast cancer can be inherited, lack of physical activity causes colon cancer. Other causes are some hormones, radiation, some chemicals and obesity among others

Who can get cancer?

Anyone can have cancer at any age although the different types occur at different ages. The average age for cancer diagnosis in Nigeria is 49-51 years for men and 45-49 years for women

What are the signs of cancer?

These vary depending on the type of cancer. Some general signs associated with but not specific to cancer include: fatigue, lumps under the skin, weight gain or loss, changes in bowel or urinary habits, skin changes, persistent coughing, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, persistent unexplained muscle or joint pain, persistent unexplained fever or night sweats, unexplained bleeding

Can cancer be cured?

Most cancers can be cured if detected early. Unfortunately most cancers are not detected until they are quite advanced at which stage treatment is very difficult and possibility of cure much reduced

How can cancer be prevented?

Cancer can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding risk factors and periodic medical checkups and immunization against some infections that can cause cancer.

Exercise, eating healthy, avoiding risky sexual behavior, personal hygiene; not smoking, drinking alcohol in moderation, avoiding constant radiation, gentle handling of chemicals; routine pap smears, breast examinations, prostate screening; immunization against HPV and hepatitis are all active means of preventing cancer.

To start off, see your doctor for an assessment of your risks given your family history and lifestyle and current health status.

FINAL WORD

We are all at risk of cancer but we can prevent it or detect it early by living healthy and getting checked up regularly. MAKE THAT MOVE AND THAT CHANGE TODAY!

 

CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: What you need to know

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is cancer involving the cervix which is lowermost part of a woman’s womb felt at the top of the vagina

What causes cervical cancer?

It is caused by a virus called human papilloma virus. It is a sexually transmitted virus which causes no symptoms (complaints) when one is infected and causes cancer many years later. Thus risk factors are early age of first sexual intercourse and having multiple sexual partners. Smoking is also a risk factor.

How common is cervical cancer?

It is the 2nd most common cancer in women worldwide. About 14000 new cases are diagnosed in Nigeria every year and about 9000 women die from the condition yearly.

How can I know if I have cervical cancer?

The common symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge and bleeding after sexual intercourse.

Can cervical cancer be treated?

Yes, it can be successfully treated if it is diagnosed early. However at that early stage, there are no complaints and so most women do not come to hospital. Most women present when it is already advanced with the symptoms mentioned above. At that stage it is difficult to treat.

Can cervical cancer be prevented?

Yes it can. First by avoiding multiple sexual partners, use of a condom if single and highly sexually active, regular screening (checking) of the cervix for changes that can lead to cancer and by immunization against the human papilloma virus.

How is cervical screening done?

It is done in a hospital where a trained medical personnel has a look at your cervix with an instrument. A sample is taken from the cervix and sent to the laboratory to check for abnormalities which are not cancer but can lead to cancer. This can be successfully treated if present to prevent cancer. It is not a painful procedureand takes less 2 minutes. All sexually active women should have this done every 3 years.

Can I be immunized against HPV?

Immunization is recommended for girls from age 9 years, women yet to commence sexual intercourse and if testing for HPV is negative. It consist of 3 injections with the second given 4 weeks after the first, and the third 6 months after the second injection.

 

 

 

Ovarian cancer

What are the signs of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer has no noticeable symptoms in its early stages. In later stages, you may notice abdominal discomfort and swelling, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Be familiar with the risk factors and signs of ovarian cancer, and see your doctor if you suspect a problem.


Who is at high risk for Ovarian cancer

Anyone with ovaries is at risk of ovarian cancer. However, some factors, such as a family history, genetic predisposition, increasing age and use of hormone replacement therapy can put you at a higher risk. If you are concerned about your risk, talk to your doctor about ovarian cancer prevention and screening.

Should I be concerned if I feel pain in both ovaries

Ovary pain is not a specific symptom of ovarian cancer, but you should talk to your doctor about any abdominal or pelvic pain you experience.

Are fibroids and ovarian cysts related to ovarian cancer

Fibroids are not related to ovarian cancer, and most ovarian cysts are not cancerous (and will not develop into cancer). However, some complex ovarian cysts may be cancerous and should be monitored by your doctor.

Can you feel a lump with ovarian cancer

You will not be able to detect an ovarian mass by yourself. During a screening, your doctor may perform an internal pelvic examination, in which he or she will insert a gloved hand into your vagina. The other gloved hand will gently press on your abdomen to feel for abnormalities.

Where can ovarian cancer spread

If a suspicious ovarian mass is found, your surgeon will check for the spread of cancer in the tissues and organs surrounding the area. Your surgeon may also perform a biopsy of your lymph nodes, abdominal tissues and the tissues near your stomach

Can I have a child after diagnosis of ovarian cancer

If you are diagnosed with ovarian cancer, fertility preservation program will evaluate your options for having a family in the future. This might include egg preservation, in-vitro fertilization and other advanced reproductive techniques.

How long can I live after the diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

For the most common ovarian cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer, the average 5-year relative survival rate is 47 percent. However, that survival rate does not factor in some recently approved therapies or therapies that are in clinical trials. Also, the survival rate is dependent on the stage of your cancer. When detected early, the average 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is more than 90 percent.

 

Breast Cancer

 

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The foundation stone of the Lagos Island Maternity Hospital was laid by Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Gloucester on the 13th of May, 1959. The Hospital was formally declared open by Lady Robertson, wife of the then Governor-General of the Federation of Nigeria on the 20th July, 1960.

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